TABLE OF CONTENTS
III. The Pre-War Years -- FBI, G-2, MAGIC,
10, 1940 - Federal
Bureau of Investigation
Case Report on
the HEIMUSHA KAI (Association of
in America obligated to Military Duty)
January 30, 1941 to January
23, 1942 -
February 12 to June 9,
Intelligence Reports based on MAGIC
July 3, 1941 - FBI
Heimusha Kai and other organizations
October 4, 1941 -
on the NANKA TEIKOKU GUNYU-DAN
October 30, 1941 -
News Report on Japanese Espionage
November 1941 - Japanese on the West Coast by Curtis Munson
November 3, 1941 -
Japanese Military Servicemen's League and Japanese American Citizens
December 4, 1941 -
Naval Iintelligence Report,
Japanese Intelligence and Propaganda in the United States During 1941
December 4, 1941 -
Special Agent in Charge
Honolulu to Director of FBI re detention of aliens
IV. The War Begins -- December 8, 1941 ~ 1942
a. Intelligence -- MAGIC, FBI, G-2, ONI
7, 1941 -
Presidential Proclamation 2525 re Alien
1941 - FBI File
Memos and Reports on Round-up
of Enemy Aliens
December 10, 1941 -
letters re Curtis Munson and apprehension of
12, 1941 (Feb.
15, 1942; July 2, 1946) - FBI reports on custodial detentions, searches
and apprehensions on the West Coast
1941 - ONI
Report on Tokyo
Club Syndicate with its Interlocking Affiliates
- Investigation Of Un-American
Propaganda Activities In The United States - Report on Japanese
January 16, 1942 - FBI
letter to FCC
re illicit short-wave radio transmissions
21, 1942 - G-2
Bulletin on Japanese Espionage
January 23, 1942 -
File on Juichi Hazama
Jan. 26, Feb. 7,
June 19, 1942 - Ringle
Reports on the Japanese Question in the U.S., Japanese Menace on Terminal
January 30, 1942 -
on Compulsory Military Service Association
January 30, 1942 -
Prospectus of Heimusha Kai of Utah
January 30, 1942 -
Report on the NANKA TEIKOKU GUNYU-DAN
February 2, 1942 -
memorandum for Attorney General, pros and cons of evacuation
1942 - FBI
letter to Attorney General re Enemy Alien Problem in Western Defense
February 10, 1942
- Memo re
Japanese internee complaints at Ellis Island
February 19, 1942 - Executive
9066 authorizing the Secretary
of War to provide for those excluded from military areas
1942 - G-2
Report on Enemy Situation in Western Defense Command
April 6, 1942 -
G-2 Memo re
Enemy Agents in Pacific Northwest
April 28, 1942 -
treatment of alien enemy detainees
September 7, 1942
- FBI Case
Report on Japanese Espionage in
September 9, 1942
- FBI case
on John Mikami re Pearl Harbor
October 17, 1942
from Internee Hearing Board Report on Richard Kotoshirodo espionage case
V. The War Relocation Authority Years
a. Evacuation, Relocation
March 6, 1942 - Western Defense Command HQ Press Release re advice to enemy aliens and Japanese-American citizens
18, 1942 - Executive
Order 9102 establishing the War Relocation Authority
March 1942 - The
Work Corps: A
of Information for Enlistees and Their Families
March 23, 1942 - Letter
American Citizens League to
15, 1942 -
Constitutional Power of the WRA to Detain Evacuees
April 20, 1942 - M.
Eisenhower, Memorandum for Members of Congress
May 25, 1942 -
on Spanish Consular visit to Raton Ranch, Civilian Detention Station
June 20, 1942 -
October 1942 - Dealing With
Americans -- Background for
October 1942 -
Report of the War Relocation Authority
December 19, 1942
- Report on
Conditions in Relocation Centers
January 1943 -
March 1943 -- An
Statement by Dillon Myer
March 11, 1943 --
letter to Secretary of War Stimson, including reply
April 20, 1943 --
Kitasako to Dillon Myer
May 14, 1943 --
Press Conference with Dillon Myer
June 5, 1943 --
J. L. DeWitt's "Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the
West Coast 1942" (transcription in progress)
June 24, 1943 --
Myer in March of Time address
July 7, 1943 -
S. Myer, Constitutional Principles Involved in the Relocation
July 7, 1943 -
S. Myer, Evidences of Americanism Among Japanese-Americans
July 21, 1943 -
Report: Are the Nisei Assimilated?
July 15, 1943 -
S. Myer, NBC broadcast
August 6, 1943 -
Myer, The Truth About Relocation
August 25, 1943 - Leave
August 31, 1943 -
Attorney General on Japan Govt. complaints re treatment of Japanese in
September 11, 1943
to FBI re improvements at Centers
October 18, 1943 -
A talk by
Dillon Myer, Obligations of Our Heritage
November 16, 1943 -
Dillon Myer, The Relocation Program
December 21, 1943 -
Christmas Message to WRA staff
January 21, 1944 -
Dillon Myer, Facts About the War Relocation Authority
February 11, 1944 -
Myer to Sen. Truman on educational program
March 14, 1944 -
speech, Relocation Problems and Policies
20, 1944 issue of LIFE magazine on the Tule Lake
March 23, 1944 -
speech, One Thousandth of the Nation
March 6 - June 2,
1944 - Dillon
Myer memoranda to Interior Secretary Ickes, and to Under-Secretary
April 29, 1944 -
memorandum re DeWitt's Final Report
September 8, 1944 -
Interior news release re number leaving centers
October 2, 1944 --
Dillon Myer, Race and Reason
October 26, 1944 --
Dillon Myer, A Tenth of a Million People
November 15 and
20, 1944 -
Minutes of Meetings, WRA - War Department - Department of Justice
January 1945 -
General message on WRA policies and procedures
January 1945 -
Dillon Myer, West
Coast speech excerpts
January 10, 1945 - Dept.
of Justice Assistant Attorney General John Burling reply
to the Tule Lake Sokuji Kikoku Hoshi Dan and Hokoku Seinen Dan groups (transcription pending)
February 19, 1945 -
mass meeting of Minidoka residents
June 19, 1945 -
Myer speech, Problems
of Evacuee Resettlement in California
July 1945 - Annual
Report of the
Director of the WRA
July 14, 1945 -
Letter from Myer
to S. Hideshima
August 1945 - Myer,
to American Soldiers of Japanese Ancestry
1945 - WRA Relation
1945 - Statement by
Relocation: The Final Chapter
August 22, 1945 - Alien Enemy Control Unit Director Edward Ennis letter to ACLU Director Ernest Besig regarding renunciants (transcription pending)
1946 -- WRA memorandum to
Congress from the three West Coast States
January 1, 1946 -
Excerpts from WRA
Final Report on Legal and Constitutional Phases of the WRA Program
April 24, 1946 - Letter
Sec. Krug to Speaker of the House Rayburn re bill to create Evacuation
July 1946 -- Semiannual
Report of the
War Relocation Authority (paging incomplete)
April 1948 - Statement of
D. S. Myer
before a Subcommittee of the House Judiciary Committee re
July 19, 1949 - Dillon S.
in support of H. R. 199 before a Special Committee of the Senate
July 27, 1962 - Myer
American Citizens League
WRA documents 1943-1947 - PDF files pending transcription
b. Intelligence -- MAGIC, FBI, G-2,
24, 1942 - Fact
Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, Testimony of Fred Tayama
December 12, 1942
- FBI memo on
establishment of WRA
December 12, 1942
- FBI Report
on Police and Internal Security
Problems in War Relocation Camps
December 15, 1942
- FBI Memo on
Summary of War Relocation
1943 - FBI
memorandum on riots,
strikes, and disturbances in Japanese relocation centers
January 9, 1943 -
Confidential Informant on conditions at Relocation Centers
January 20, 1943 -
Investigations of American Citizens of Japanese Ancestry in War Relocation
January 1943 -
re Transfer of WRA Functions to War Dept. (6 pages)
1943 - FBI
survey of War Relocation Authority Camps; Myer response
March 1943 -
Report on Un-American Activities in California, Japanese Activities
March 23, 1943 -
FBI report on
registration for military service at WRA Centers
May 12, 1943 -
re Japanese-American protest of registration for military service
September 30, 1943
Committee Report Summary and Eberharter's Minority Views
November 19, 1943 -
John M. Hall to Dillon Myer, Excerpts from Confidential Letter from
General Emmons to Mr. McCloy
February 4, 1944 -
Selective Service re denial of Japanese Americans for military service;
May 12, 1943 ONI Report re registration protestor
February 28, 1944 -
April 16, 1945 -
Un-American Activities Report on Japanese Problems in California
April 23, 1945
- G-2 Report
of Interrogation of an American-born Japanese POW
April 30, 1945 -
before subcommittee of Committee on Appropriations, House of
May 2, 1945 -
Japanese at Tule Lake requesting ex/repatriation
August 9, 1948 - INS
letter re total
interned in U.S. during WWII
October 18, 1948 - Time
Magazine article on Tomoya Kawakita
1964 - US Army Handbook, Guarding the United States and its
- Continental Defense Commands
Pearl Harbor - Japanese
the West Coast - The
after Pearl Harbor
VI. Hearings on Evacuation, Relocation and Internment
Wartime Relocation and Internment
of Civilians Hearings
July 2, 1981 - Testimony
August 5, 1981 -
Statement by Karl
August 11, 1981 -
Testimony of Boris
August 21, 1981 - Japan
article by Kiyoaki Murata
September 9, 1981 -
American Evacuation Redress
July 27, 1983 -
Testimony of Dr. Ken
July 27, 1983 -
Testimony of Senator
S. I. Hayakawa
Japanese-American and Aleutian
Wartime Relocation Hearings
June 20, 1984 -
Testimony of Ken
June 21, 1984 -
Testimony of John
June 27, 1984 -
Testimony of David
Lowman (2 pages)
September 12, 1984 -
of Karl Bendetsen
Recommendations of the Commission on
Wartime Internment and Relocation of Citizens
1984 - Testimony of
Samuel I. Hayakawa
August 16, 1984 -
Testimony of Frederick Wiener, including a statement by Shonin
from John McCloy to
Senator Charles Grassley, and excerpts
from Acheson v. Murakami
August 16, 1984 -
Testimony of David
August 16, 1984 -
August 16, 1984 - Testimony of Lillian Baker,
with 16 exhibits (2 pages) - Originals of documents in Lillian Baker collection
August 16, 1984 -
Testimony of Rachel
Military Necessity Question
Deserts and Hard
m. Comments on the News
Questions to Ask
|We, the members of the Japanese
Farmer's Association of Eastern Oregon and Western Idaho,
inform our relatives and friends in Japan that we are receiving the
same good care and protection by the United States government that we
received previous to the outbreak of present hostilities, and that we
are doing our farming in a normal way just as in former years.
We are not restricted in traveling in our communities, or from
community to and from our homes and places of business; or from going
to church, schools, or any federal, state or local agency which might
be required for the transaction of business.
We appreciate very much this freedom of movement and protection by the
American government. No member of our community has been apprehended or
detained by government authorities. So please do not be anxious about
us. We are all right. -- H. K. Hashitani
Telegram sent by a
group of Japanese
to the Imperial Government on January 20, 1941
-- From Quiet Passages by
IX. Assorted documents
7, 1970 -- Oral History Interview with Dillon S. Myer (Truman
Oct. 24, 1972 -- Excerpts
from an Oral
History Interview with Karl R. Bendetsen on reasons for EO9066
"We didn't lose everything"
Other Side of the Japanese American Story
and Redress for
Japanese-American Internment, 1983-88 -- An article
News Clippings from the Past
-- A collection of news clippings from West Coast newspapers during
Through the Eyes of an Issei:
The Internment of Japanese in the United States during World War II
-- Excerpts from Life Behind Barbed Wire by
Affidavit of Jiro Nakahara
-- Description of atrocities by a Nisei who worked for the Imperial
Japanese Navy as a civilian radio monitor
On the Japanese
Problem - background articles from the early 1900's on
immigration and land policies regarding the Japanese in the
The Japanese in Hawaii
by Utaro Okumura (1920) -- very enlightening background
information on reasons for the feelings of "restlessness,
suspicion" between America and Japan
The Foreign Language Schools - excerpt from A Survey of Education in Hawaii
(Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Education, 1920) revealing how
Japanese language school instruction posed a very serious problem in
Hawaii as well as on the West Coast
Contents of the Japanese
Language School Textbooks - excerpt from A Survey of Education in Hawaii
(Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Education, 1920)
Hawaii and Its Race Problem
(Dept. of Interior, 1932) - excerpts on the Japanese race situation in
Hawaii just prior to WWII
Japanese Patriotic Organizations 1947-03-05
- Investigations Division (IPS) report on Ultra-Nationalistic,
Nationalistic, and Conservative societies in Japan, with short history
on Japanese nationalism
Friendly Japanese (A-J, K-O, S-Y)
- Produced in Aug. 1945 by the US Military Intelligence Division, a
listing of Japanese in Japan (including many American-born) who were
thought to be "loyal Japanese who... may be expected to cooperate with
Allied occupation force."
Video December 7th (full version) - Controversial in its time; full of information dealing with the Nikkei problem in Hawaii.
Relations Between US Military Forces and the Population of Hawaii
by Bertrand Roehner (2014) - Excellent chronological information. Of
note in this document: Chapter Six, "Sabotage and Espionage" and
Chapter Seven, "The Niihau Incident." See also my collection of excerpts.
Nisei in His Imperial Majesty's Service - Japanese Americans Who Served the Fatherland During World War II
December 7 -- Pearl Harbor was attacked by the
December 15 -- Statement was made by Secretary Knox
of U. S.
alleging "effective fifth column work" in Hawaii.
January 5 -- John B. Hughes, in a radio broadcast, criticized the
Department of Justice and urged evacuation of all Japanese. This kicked
off the campaign for evacuation.
January 29 -- U. S. Attorney General Francis Biddle
a series of orders establishing limited strategic areas along the
Pacific Coast and requiring the removal of all enemy aliens from these
January 30 -- Colonel
as the War Department's
representative, appeared before the West Coast Congressional delegation
and was reported as having stated that "military judgment on the West
Coast on whether or not this evacuation of citizens and aliens should
take place was positively in the affirmative."
|MacArthur Radiogram on the Nikkei and Japanese Treatment of Civilians in the Philippines
FEBRUARY 1, 1942FROM: FORT MILLS
TO: THE ADJUTANT GENERAL
reports confirm my previous statements as to the extremely harsh and
rigid measures taken against the American and English in occupied areas
in the Philippines. Such steps are not only unnecessary but are
unquestionably dictated by the idea of abuse and special humiliation. I
earnestly recommend that steps be taken through the State Dept. to have
these conditions alleviated. The
negligible restrictions apparently applied in the United States to the
many thousands of Japanese nationals there can easily serve as the
lever under the threat of reciprocal retaliatory measures to force
decent treatment for these interned men and women. The only language the Japanese understand is force and it should be applied mercilessly to his nationals if necessary.
The special harshness of treatment here coupled with moderate treatment
of metropolitan Filipinos is definitely designed to discredit the white
races. I urge this matter be handled immediately and aggressively
through the proper diplomatic channels.
February 10 (approx.) -- Opinion was given to Attorney General Biddle
by a team of lawyers (Cohen, Cox, and Rauh) upholding the legality of
evacuation under the President's war powers.
February 12 -- Walter Lippmann's syndicated column appeared. It was
entitled "The Fifth Column on the Coast."
February 13 -- West Coast Congressional delegation sent a letter to
President Roosevelt recommending the "immediate evacuation of all
persons of Japanese lineage... aliens and citizens alike" from the
"entire strategic area" of California, Washington, and Oregon.
February 14 -- Lt. Gen. John L. DeWitt, Commanding
Western Defense Command, sent a memorandum to Secretary of War Henry
Stimson recommending the evacuation of "Japanese and other
persons" from the West Coast area.
Defense Command Map
of the United States - 1942
February 19 -- President Roosevelt signed Executive
Order No. 9066
authorizing the Secretary of War or any military commander designated
by the Secretary, to establish "military areas" and exclude therefrom
"any or all persons."
February 20 -- Secretary Stimson designated General DeWitt as a
military commander empowered to carry out an evacuation within his
command under the terms of Executive Order 9066.
February 21 -- The Tolan Committee hearings were
started in San
Francisco and continued until March 12 on the West Coast.
February 23 -- An enemy seaborne craft shelled Goleta, California, near
Santa Barbara. A timely act from the standpoint of the exclusionists.
March 2 -- General DeWitt issued Proclamation No. 1
Western half of the three Pacific Coast states and the southern third
of Arizona as a military area and stipulating that all persons of
Japanese descent would eventually be removed therefrom.
March 11 -- General DeWitt established the Wartime Civil
Administration (WCCA), with Col. Karl R. Bendetsen as
carry out the evacuation program.
March 18 -- President Roosevelt signed Executive Order No. 9102
creating the War Relocation Authority to assist persons evacuated by
the military under Executive Order No. 9066. Milton S.
March 21 -- President Roosevelt signed Public Law 503
making it a federal offense to violate any order issued by a designated
military commander under authority of Executive Order No. 9066.
March 22 -- First large contingent of Japanese and Japanese
moved from Los Angeles to the Manzanar Assembly Center
Army in the Owens Valley of California.
March 23 -- General DeWitt issued Civilian Exclusion Order
ordering the evacuation of all people of Japanese descent from
Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, and their removal by March 30, to the
Puyallup Army Assembly Center near Seattle.
"View from window of the Wartime Civil Control Administration station.
Moving vans are taking baggage belonging to evacuees of Japanese
ancestry to the Assembly center." (Oakland, 05/06/1942)
March 27 -- General DeWitt issued Proclamation No. 4
29) forbidding further voluntary migration of Japanese and Japanese
Americans from the West Coast military area.
April 7 -- Representatives of the governments of the ten Western states
met at Salt Lake City with Director Milton S. Eisenhower of WRA and
Colonel Bendetsen of WCCA to discuss resettlement plans for the
evacuated people. The majority of the conferees registered
uncompromising protest against unrestricted migration or resettlement
within the western states. (This meeting is referred to as the Governors'
May 8 -- The first contingent of evacuees arrived at the Colorado
Relocation Center (Poston) near Parker, Arizona.
May 21 -- Group of 15 evacuees left from the Portland Army Assembly
Center for seasonal agricultural work in Malheur County, Oregon, under
civilian restriction order of the Western Defense Command.
May 27 -- First contingent of evacuees arrived at the Tule
Relocation Center in northern California.
May 29 -- "National Student Relocation Council" was established, with
John Nason as chairman.
June 1 -- The Manzanar Army Assembly Center was transferred from WCCA
to WRA and renamed Manzanar Relocation Center.
June 2 -- General DeWitt issued Public Proclamation No. 6
further voluntary migration of people of Japanese descent from the
eastern half of California and simultaneously announced that all such
people would eventually be removed from this area directly to WRA
June 17 -- President Roosevelt appointed Dillon S. Myer
Milton S. Eisenhower as director of WRA after Eisenhower's resignation
to become Deputy Director of the Office of War In formation.
July 20 -- WRA adopted its first leave policy which launched the
relocation program outside of centers. On this same date the Gila
Relocation Center in Arizona received its first contingent of
from the Turlock Army Assembly Center in California.
August 7 -- Western Defense Command announced the completion
evacuation of 110,000 from their homes in the military areas
Army Assembly Centers or to WRA centers. The last of the residents of
Japanese descent from eastern California were moved to relocation
centers, even though most of them had already moved voluntarily from
their homes near the West Coast to new homes farther inland.
August 10 -- Minidoka Relocation Center near Twin
received the first contingent of evacuees from the Puyallup Army
August 12 -- Heart Mountain Relocation Center near
received its first group of evacuees from the Pomona Army Assembly
August 13 -- WRA began an agency conference of key staff members in San
Francisco to determine basic policies for the operation of relocation
August 27 -- The Granada Relocation Center near La
opened with the arrival of a group of evacuees from the Merced Army
September 11 -- The Central Utah Relocation Center
received the first group of evacuees from the Tanforan Army Assembly
September 18 -- The Rohwer Relocation Center near
received its first group of evacuees from the Stockton Army Assembly
September 26 -- The WRA issued its revised and expanded basic leave
regulations effective on October 1. These regulations laid the basis
for an all-out resettlement program.
October 6 -- The Jerome Relocation Center near
last of the ten centers ready for business, received a group of
evacuees from the Fresno Army Assembly Center.
November 3 -- The transfer of evacuees from the Army Wartime Civil
Control Administration to the WRA was completed with the arrival of the
last group at the Jerome Center from Fresno.
November 14 -- A community-wide strike and demonstration (The
Incident) was staged by the evacuees of Unit One of the
November 15 -- Announcement was made of plans to eliminate the WRA
regional offices as line offices, effective December 1.
November 23 -- The Poston Incident was settled by an agreement between
the administration and a committee of the residents.
December 6 -- Some Manzanar residents staged a demonstration
arrest of a resident. The military were called in and took over
December 10 -- A small group of troublemakers was moved from Manzanar
to a Moab, Utah, abandoned CCC camp; aggressive
moved to a Death Valley CCC camp site to avoid more
January 4 -- WRA field offices were established in
Lake City to facilitate relocation; soon thereafter, offices were
opened in Cleveland, Minneapolis, Des Moines, New York, Denver, Kansas
City, and Boston.
January 20 -- Chairman Robert Reynolds of the Senate Committee on
Military Affairs appointed a subcommittee under the chairman ship of
Senator A. B. Chandler of Kentucky to investigate the WRA
to consider a bill introduced by Senator Mon Wallgren to transfer the
functions of WRA to the War Department.
January 28 -- Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson announced plans to form
a Japanese American Combat Team to be made up of
the mainland and Hawaii.
February 8 -- Army enlistment and leave clearance registration
most of the relocation centers.
March 11 -- WRA Director Dillon Myer wrote a letter to Secretary of War
Stimson recommending an immediate relaxation of the West Coast
Exclusion Orders against persons of Japanese descent. This
recommendation was rejected in a reply dated May 10 in which
segregation was strongly urged.
March 20 -- Project directors were authorized to issue leave permits to
persons wishing to relocate, in cases where leave clearance had been
given by the Washington office.
April 8 -- Senator Chandler wrote to Director Myer setting forth
tentative recommendations of his subcommittee regarding the WRA program
and urging that the "disloyal" evacuees be separated from the other
residents of WRA centers.
May 6 -- Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt spent a full day at
Relocation Center. [PHOTO: "Mrs. Yamamoto, former P.T.A. president from
San Francisco, and now head of the Canal Women's Club, presents Mrs.
Eleanor Roosevelt with a bouquet of flowers. " (04/23/1943)]
May 12 -- Two investigators from the staff of the House of
Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities
at the Manzanar Relocation Center to begin a probe of the WRA program.
May 23 -- Director and Mrs. Myer had lunch with President Roosevelt at
the White House.
May 31 -- Meeting of all project directors was held in Washington to
discuss the situation in the various centers and the possibility of a
segregation program. The directors were unanimous in favor of a
June 3 -- Chairman Martin Dies of the Committee on
Activities announced the appointment of a three-man subcommittee, with
John M. Costello of California as Chairman and Karl Mundt of South
Dakota and Herman Eberharter of Pennsylvania as members, to investigate
June 25 -- Director Dillon Myer wrote to Assistant Secretary of War
John J. McCloy regarding plans for a segregation program and the
selection of Tule Lake as the segregation center.
July 6 -- Director Myer appeared for the first time before the Costello
Subcommittee to testify and to defend the administration of
August, September, and early October -- More than 15,000 people were
moved in and out of the Tule Lake Center.
October 11 -- The last group of evacuees from other centers arrived at
October 15 -- A truck accident, which killed one evacuee, led to a farm
strike at Tule Lake.
November 1 -- A mass demonstration was staged at Tule Lake for the
benefit of the National Director who was there on a visit.
November 4 -- An outbreak of violence occurred at Tule Lake
internal security staff and a group of dissident young evacuees. Troops
were called in, and the center was transferred to military control.
November 8 -- A so-called fact-finding committee of the California
legislature began its investigation of the Tule Lake disturbance by
holding hearings in the nearby village of Tule Lake.
November 16 -- Director Dillon Myer met with the state commanders and
state adjutants of the American Legion in Indianapolis.
November 24 -- Director Myer testified before the Senate Committee on
Military Affairs regarding the Tule Lake disturbance.
November 29 -- The Costello Subcommittee began a series of hearings on
the Tule Lake situation.
January 14 -- The control of the Tule Lake Center was transferred back
to the WRA by the military.
January 20 -- Secretary of War Stimson announced that in view of the
record achieved by Japanese Americans in the Army, they would
thereafter be recruited through the regular Selective Service
February 16 -- President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9423
transferring WRA to the Department of the Interior.
May -- The 442nd Combat Team embarked for the
June 8 -- President Roosevelt announced a plan to bring approximately
one thousand European refugees into the United States outside the
regular immigration quotas and quarter them at an Emergency
Shelter to be administered by WRA at Oswego, New York.
June 30 -- The Jerome Relocation Center was closed
and the five
sand remaining residents were transferred to other centers.
July 1 -- President Roosevelt signed Public Law 405
Congress) permitting United States citizens to renounce their
citizenship on American soil in time of war under procedures approved
by the Attorney General.
August 3 -- European refugees arrived at New York en route to the
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Oswego, New York.
December 17 -- The War Department announced the revocation
on January 2, 1945) of the West Coast mass exclusion orders
been in effect against people of Japanese descent since the spring of
December 18 -- The WRA announced that all relocation centers would be
closed before the end of 1945 and that the entire WRA pro gram would be
liquidated on June 30, 1946. On this same date the U.S. Supreme Court
ruled in the Korematsu case that the West Coast
constitutional; the Court also ruled on the Endo case
that WRA had no authority to detain a "concededly loyal" American
January 8 -- An attempt was made to burn and dynamite the packing shed
of a returned evacuee in Placer County, California. This was the first
of thirty West Coast incidents, over a period of five months
January to June.
January 10-20 -- Field area offices were
established at Los
San Francisco, and Seattle.
February 16 -- An "all center" evacuee conference was held at Salt Lake
City far the purpose of discussing and documenting the problems
inherent in the liquidation of WRA centers.
April 30 -- Director Myer, appearing before a House Appropriations
Subcommittee, estimated that approximately 44,000
evacuees would be left in centers by June 30.
May 14 -- Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes
incidents of West Coast terrorism and called for more vigorous local
June 20 -- Director Dillon Myer and Assistant Director Robert
started on a trip of several days duration from Los Angeles up the big
valley of California to visit returning evacuees, especially those
had been subjected to terrorism.
July 13 -- WRA announced a schedule of closing dates for all centers,
except Tule Lake, between October 15 and December 15.
July 16 -- Captain George Grandstaff, a Caucasian
442nd Combat Team, began a speaking tour of the hot spots in California
to plead for tolerance toward the returning
August 1 -- Director Myer issued Administrative Notice 289
the scheduled relocation of remaining residents during the last six
weeks of operation of each WRA center.
August 15 -- VJ Day.
September 4 -- The Western Defense Command issued Public
No. 24 revoking all individual exclusion orders and all
military restrictions against persons of Japanese descent.
December 1 -- The last Relocation Center, except Tule Lake,
December 22 -- President Truman announced that the refugees at Oswego
should be considered for admission to the United States under regular
February 4 -- Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario,
February 23 -- Last group of repatriates from Tule Lake
from Long Beach, California; 432 aboard ship at sailing time.
May 8 -- The Director of WRA received "The Medal for Merit" as a result
of the work of the agency during the war.
May 15 -- The last of the WRA field offices were closed.
June 30 -- The War Relocation Authority Program was officially terminated.