POW Camp #1 - Page 4
Commonwealth of Massachusetts
I, Walter A. KOSTECKI, Major, 0-357259, MC, now residing at 839 East 5th Street, South Boston, Massachusetts, having had explained to me my rights under the 24th Article of War and being duly sworn, do depose and say:
1. a. I was born in Boston, Massachusetts, 6 March 1911. I am a member of the Officers' Reserve Corps in the United States Army, having been commissioned a First Lieutenant in the Medical Corps on or about 10 June 1937. I was called to active duty 1 November 1939 and was assigned to Fort Ontario, Oswego, New York, where I served as assistant surgeon until 4 July 1940 when I was sent on detached service to Fort Dix, New Jersey. While in New Jersey, I was chief of the Processing Center, examining inductees. This duty continued until 1 January 1941 when I received orders transferring me to the Philippine Department. I went overseas 24 January 1941, arriving at Manila, Philippine Islands, 20 February 1941. I was then attached to Sternberg General Hospital, Manila, from 20 February 1941 to 6 March 1941, as ward surgeon; then from 6 March 1941 to 1 August 1941 I was assistant flight surgeon at Nichols Field, just outside of Manila; from 1 August 1941 until captured two days before the capitulation of Bataan, 7 April 1942, I served as surgeon with the 46th Infantry Regiment, Philippine Scouts.
b. I graduated from Tufts College in June 1933 with a Bachelor of Science degree, having majored in chemistry; received an M.D. degree from George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C., in June 1937; then for one year interned at Long Island Hospital, Boston Harbor, in a rotating internship; from July 1938, for one year, interned at Union Hospital, Fall River, Massachusetts, likewise in a rotating internship; then from July 1939 served as resident physician at Long Island Hospital, Boston Harbor, in a rotating residency. In November 1939 I went on active duty in the United States Army. During my service in the Medical Corps of the United States Army, I performed a large amount of surgery during my one year at Fort Ontario Station Hospital, Oswego, New York, as assistant post surgeon, which work included performance of many major operations, obstetrics and gynecology, in addition to the regular work of medicine. While serving as assistant flight surgeon at Nichols Field, Philippine Islands, and as surgeon with the 45th Infantry Regiment, Philippine Scouts, I performed the duties of assistant regimental surgeon and battalion surgeon, which included the treatment of medical illnesses, diagnoses of surgical conditions, in peacetime; and included frontline treatment of emergency surgical cases and medical cases during the Battle of Bataan. During my medical school training at George Washington University School of Medicine, I studied nutritional diseases, which course was part of my general medical course, and also had experience in nutritional diseases at Gallinger Hospital, Washington, D.C.; Emergency Hospital, Washington, D.C.; and Children's Hospital, Washington, D.C., I had additional experience in nutritional diseases while serving with the 45th Infantry Regiment, Philippine Scouts, in Bataan.
c. Upon being captured two days before the capitulation of Bataan, 7 April 1942, by a Japanese Infantry unit, the name of which I do not know but which was situated at the junction of Trails 8 and 6, Second Corps of frontline, Bataan, I was forced to serve as a cargador with the Japanese Infantry for five days. I then was ordered on "The Death March" from Bataan to San Fernando. I was held at a San Fernando schoolyard for two days and three nights; I was left there with about 50 of the most seriously wounded and ill Americans who were awaiting death or new strength to continue their journey. From 19 April 1942 to 23 January 1945, I was held at Camp O'Donnell from 24 January 1943 to 23 February 1943, I was held at Cabanatuan, in the Province of Nueva Ecija. I was then taken with a 200-man medical group to Japan. From 17 March 1944 to 17 April 1944, I was held at Camp No. 1, Fukuoka, Island of Kyushu, Japan. This camp moved twice during my incarceration there. It was first at Kashi, suburban Fukuoka, where it consisted of a warehouse camp of about 300 English, 10 to 12 Dutch and 4 Americans. About 17 April 1944 I moved with the camp to an airport about two miles from the city limits of Fukuoka and five miles from Kashi. On or about the 25th of April 1944, we were joined by about 100 American civilian prisoners of war who were taken at Wake Island by the Japanese. In May of the same year, we were later joined by approximately an additional 200 Malayan and Dutch prisoners of war who were taken in the Netherlands East Indies. We moved to a camp, the name of which we did not know but which was named by us the Pine Tree Camp since it was situated in a pine tree grove, on or about the 19th of January 1945. This latter camp was about four miles from the airfield, two miles from Kashi and about a mile from Fukuoka city limits. The Japanese organization of these camps was the same and the camp always called Fukuoka Camp No. 1.
2. a. The commanding officer of Fukuoka Camp No. 1 from March of 1944 to the latter part of April 1945 was Yuhichi SAKAMOTO whose rank at that time was First Lieutenant in the Japanese Imperial Army. He is between 35 and 40 years of age now; about 5' 5" tall; weighing approximately 150 pounds; probably a little more swarthy than the average Jap; close-cropped black hair; he wore no glasses that I knew of; his actions were very peasant-like and took a great deal of pleasure getting into peasants' clothing and ambling around the camp.
b. During my incarceration at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, which includes these three camps above described, I had approximately l00 English, Australian, Dutch and American deaths. At no time was I permitted to keep clinical records. Upon the death of an individual, the Japanese made up their own clinical records without any knowledge of the patient's illness and insisted that I sign these records to which was attached a death certificate. I signed these death certificates under duress. Since these records were in Japanese script and since I was not able to read them, I informed the Japanese, through Masato HATA whose position was that of Japanese medical corpsman and compiler of Japanese medical records at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, that I was signing under duress. The Japanese had posted in the camp rules and regulations for the camp which included absolute obedience to Japanese orders regardless of what the orders were. If any order was not carried out, it constituted "failure to co-operate" with the Japanese which was regarded by the Japanese as actions verging on sabotage and therefore punishable by death. Thus, when I was ordered to sign the death certificates, I could do nothing else but sign them--practically on threat of death.
c. In almost all instances of my signing death certificates, I examined the bodies prior to signature. I was permitted to keep no records whatsoever of my medical findings at the time of these examinations. As a matter of fact, no prisoner held by the Japanese was permitted to keep any pencils, paper, pen or ink as such things were called playthings by the Japanese, and we were told by the Japanese that only children played with pencils and paper. Upon my arrival at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, the few personal articles I did have were searched thoroughly and all papers, books and pencils--I had no pen--were confiscated. From recollection, however, I do know the main cause of death was malnutrition and secondary to the malnutrition was pneumonia, diarrhea or dysentery, and, in a number of cases, beatings.
3. Yuhichi SAKAMOTO, the commanding officer of the camp, was definitely responsible for the death of prisoners at Fukuoka Camp No. 1 as follows:
a. Officer prisoners who reported atrocities committed by Japanese personnel to SAKAMOTO were immediately confronted in SAKAMOTO's presence with the Japanese individual regarding whom the complaint was made. In substance, the questioning and conversation were as follows: SAKAMOTO would ask the Japanese individual, who had been reported, about the incident. The Japanese concerned would deny the atrocity charged. SAKAMOTO would then turn to the reporting officer prisoner and say, "Japanese soldier says that he did not do this. Why are you lying? Why are you trying to get Japanese soldier in trouble?" The officer prisoner would answer that his charge was true and SAKAMOTO would answer, "Japanese soldier never lies." SAKAMOTO would then turn the officer prisoner into the custody of the Japanese soldier for disciplining. The Japanese soldier would then take the officer prisoner outside and administer a thorough beating. Under this system, it was impossible in most instances to report the atrocities or non-co-operation on the part of Japanese personnel to the commanding officer, SAKAMOTO, and thus Japanese personnel were allowed to commit atrocities and administer beatings to the prisoners at will with little fear of punishment by their commanding officer. This, in my opinion, amounted to direct co-operation by SAKAMOTO with his personnel in allowing atrocities, mistreatment and starvation of the prisoners, all of which were major contributing factors to death in many instances.
b. To Fukuoka Camp No. 1, nonperishable foodstuffs were sent approximately once a month. These supplies consisted of rice, dried fish and dried seaweed. Perishables, such as meat, fresh fish and vegetables, were sent in periodically; for example, once in two weeks, once a month and sometimes not until two or even three months had elapsed. These always came in small quantities. As soon as nonperishables arrived in camp as specified above, the Japanese organization of the camp began systematically to cut rations of the prisoners, and, before the month had finished, a number of bags of rice, dried fish and seaweed would be left over. These leftovers, which amounted many times to approximately 50% of the prisoners' food rations, were then placed upon a truck by Japanese personnel in full view of Yuhichi SAKAMOTO and taken away from the camp to an unknown destination. Whenever the Japanese commanding officer of all the prison camps at Kyushu arrived for an inspection, all surplus stores were hidden from view. These were taken from the camp by the Japanese and later returned after the high Japanese inspecting officer had gone. SAKAMOTO witnessed these activities. About two or three days after surplus goods were taken by truck away from the camp as described above, a load of food of inferior quality, such as bean flakes, rice sweepings and mildewed wheat would arrive at the camp. These inferior articles were then mixed with rice and we were given then a diet consisting of a mixture of rice and the above-mentioned inferior foods. It was common knowledge among prisoners at the camp that the Japanese in charge of the camp, including the commanding officer, Yuhichi SAKAMOTO, were profiteering by transactions in surplus food as suggested above. By exchanging a few bags of surplus rice, for example, at some unknown place in some unknown way, for a comparatively larger amount of cheaper foodstuffs than rice, a worthwhile profit on the transaction was made available to the Japanese.
c. Perishable foods were received at the camp at periods of time ranging from three weeks to two to three months. Upon receipt of meat into the camp, which never amounted to more than 50 kilograms for approximately 600 men, the Japanese garrison would help themselves to more than half of the meat and then turn the balance over to the camp for the feeding of prisoners, which never amounted to more than 30 kilograms for the whole camp. The same may be said for vegetables and fish. Vegetables in particular were a sore point because in the case of such items as tuber vegetables, turnips, carrots, onions, etc., the root itself would be taken by the Japanese and the tops would be fed to the prisoners. We were issued the rotten bottoms and the tops of all vegetables and the Japanese helped themselves to the carrots, turnips, onions, etc. The Japanese rations were not included in our ration strength and anything that had been taken from the prisoners' warehouse was, in addition to their own Army ration. I wish to state at this point that the Japanese garrison at Fukuoka Camp No. 1 at all times--and I know because I and other prisoners were forced to wait on tables in Japanese messes--had an overabundance of foods both perishable and nonperishable, for their own use. At no time during my incarceration at Fukuoka Camp No. 1 did I observe a shortage of any food items in the Japanese garrison.
d. I wish to point out that the preparation of food which the prisoners were permitted to make under Japanese supervision was a definite contributing factor to the death of many of the prisoners. The Japs would issue us a daily ration of fuel for the purpose of preparing the food. This fuel never amounted to more than enough to keep the fires in the prison galley going for more than an hour at the most. As the result of this, food was undercooked and could not be prepared in a form which the prisoners could digest, particularly in their weakened, starved and, in many cases, diseased condition. Thus, the diet which was given to the prisoners and which was so low in calorific value that it would barely sustain resting metabolism in anyone was rendered by improper preparation to even lower value as food. I and other doctor prisoners reported to Yuhichi SAKAMOTO, the commanding officer, through the interpreter, KATSURA, that the majority of the camp, probably 70 to 80%, had developed a severe acute dysentery or diarrhea and were passing undigested uncooked rice and bean kernels and vegetables. The answer to the protest was usually the same, briefly as follows: "Japan is a very poor country, has very little wood and coal." Meanwhile, I and other prisoners, from personal observation of the stoves in the Japanese galleys and wood piles, knew that the Japanese had adequate fuel available for the preparation of their own food.
e. Red Cross food, which was sent to us in the form of prisoner of war food parcels, was kept in the Japanese storeroom in the camp and issued to us at the pleasure of SAKAMOTO. During the entire time I was in Fukuoka Camp No. 1, the prisoners received only two issues of Red Cross foodstuffs. One issue of Red Cross foodstuffs was made about Christmas of 1944 and the other issue of Red Cross foodstuffs was made in February of 1945. At the time of each of these issues, we were not given full, complete Red Cross parcels. Rather, at the time of each issue, Red Cross food parcels were broken open by the Japanese at SAKAMOTO's direct order and individual food items parceled out to the prisoners. SAKAMOTO, who had apparently set himself up as a medical authority and who would not take the medical advice or suggestions of Allied doctor prisoners who advised that meat and milk from the Red Cross parcels were exactly what the prisoners needed in their diet to cure their malnutrition and improve their physical condition, took the milk and meat articles from the Red Cross food parcels and stored them separately in a warehouse. These items SAKAMOTO stated would, if fed to the prisoners, cause serious diarrhea, and, for that reason, he would not issue them to the prisoners. Actually, however, these meat and milk items of Red Cross foodstuffs were stored under conditions which permitted ready access by both SAKAMOTO and Japanese personnel working at the camp. I have personally observed Japanese personnel take these Red Cross items for their own use, and I know that at least the canned milk was taken by Japanese personnel to the city of Fukuoka and sold for barter on the black market. In one instance that I recall very well, I acted as the carrier of cans of milk for Masato HATA, a Japanese medical corpsman, in transporting the milk to Fukuoka. At another time, I saw Masato HATA gorging himself on Red Cross food items in plain view of the prisoners at the camp.
f. During the time I was at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, an accurate day-by-day food record was kept which was entrusted to the care of 1st Lt. Fritz DuWyn of the Royal Netherlands Army in Java. He can be reached at this address and I believe can make these food records available.
g. During my incarceration by the Japanese at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, at no time were sufficient facilities provided for the washing of prisoners' clothes or of their persons. The prisoners were not issued any soap except on very rare occasions. During one period of eleven months no soap at all was issued and then the Japanese gave out one small cake of soap for the use of four men. During all this period there was plenty of soap available in the camp. The Japanese had sufficient soap of their own and, in addition, they had large quantities of soap which they took from Red Cross packages and set aside.
4. a. During my imprisonment at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, I worked as a doctor in the prison camp hospital. Upon my arrival at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, Kyushu, Japan, I noticed the following medical setup or organization for the care and treatment of the Allied prisoners of war held by the Japanese. There was a Japanese medical administrative building which was made up of about five very small rooms. One room was used as a medical dispensary and first-aid room, and the other rooms were used by the Japanese for preparation of medical records as mentioned above and for the storing of Japanese and American Red Cross medical supplies. Another building was set aside and was called a hospital. This hospital did not contain beds; patients were allotted floor space. The space allotted to each patient was about two feet wide and the length of his body in length. This resulted in overcrowding. Each patient was forced to lie on the floor using an issue of four Japanese army blankets and using as a pillow a bag filled with rice husks. Ventilation was extremely poor and consisted of two windows at either end of the building and no roof vent. The Japanese permitted no electric lights during the daytime, so that the inside of the hospital room was in semidarkness. Sanitation was poor or lacking. Latrines consisted of pits, ten or fifteen feet from the building. There were no urinals or bedpans in the hospital. There were no separate bathing facilities for the so-called hospital. The patients were required to use the only bathing facilities supplied to all the prisoners, which consisted of three wooden tubs, four feet by six feet, by four feet deep. These tubs were filled with water, sometimes hot, sometimes cold, but which was not changed except at the end of a bathing period, usually about a week. During the bathing period, six hundred men, including patients at the hospital, had the use of these three wooden tubs. I would like to say here that the prisoners in the ten barracks including the hospital alternated in priority in taking a bath first. This permitted rotation of clean water to each barrack about once every two months. Men in those barracks whose turn was not first, therefore, had to bathe, if at all, in tubs of dirty water used by many men before them, since the prisoners worked at hard manual labor at airfields, in warehouses and lumberyards, the water in the tubs became very dirty. Many men who were last to bathe took no bath at all.
b. Within two weeks after I arrived at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, I was called by Masato HATA to identify for the Japanese by name certain specific items of medical supplies made up wholly of Red Cross medical supplies. At that time I was under the impression that my identifications were for the purpose of enabling the Japanese to issue these Red Cross medical supplies to prisoners of war at Camp No. 1 and other subcamps. While making these identifications I saw that there were available large supplies of Red Cross medical, dental, and surgical equipment and medicines. However, these Red Cross medical supplies were at no time issued to me or to other prisoners. In other words, although large quantities of Red Cross supplies were available they were not issued for medical care of the prisoners who were required to get along with little or no medicines. The medical supplies which were issued by the Japanese to me as a doctor in the so-called prisoner hospital of Fukuoka Camp No. 1 consisted almost entirely of Japanese proprietary quack medicines. When the Japanese issued these quack medicines to me they would check off a similar quantity to that issued of American Red Cross medicines; for example, when the Japanese issued a pound or kilo of Japanese dysentery powder they would check off a kilo of Red Cross sulfanilamide medication as having been used. The doctor prisoners at the camp meanwhile had a fund which they set up out of their own money for the purchase of medicines for the prisoner patients. This fund was secret and was used in a secret arrangement with Masato HATA, the Japanese two-star private, medical orderly. When a particular medicine was needed in a serious case, money was taken from the above-described fund and given to HATA with the understanding that he would provide the required medicine. The medicine obtained by HATA under this arrangement was always Japanese proprietary medicines and was not Red Cross medicine. In addition to the above fund, I had a personal and secret arrangement with Masato HATA whereby I paid him out of my own personal money anywhere from ten to thirty yen per month merely to insure that he would fill my prescriptions more quickly than he would have done otherwise. Even under this arrangement, Masato HATA ordinarily took twenty-four to forty-eight hours to fill any prescription, but I made the arrangement, to insure as best I could some medical supplies for the most seriously ill of my patients. Before I made this arrangement, and in a number of instances after the arrangement, Masato HATA made it a practice to tear up a number of prescriptions daily. In June and July of 1944 Masato HATA went through my pile of prescriptions and tore them up at will, many times acting the part of a medical authority who felt that certain items were not necessary.
c. As for medical instruments, I saw medical, surgical, and dental equipment among the Red Cross items stored by the Japanese. When I requested a stethoscope, thermometers and certain dental instruments which I knew the Japanese had on hand among the Red Cross items, I was refused. My request for these items went through Masato HATA.
d. I would like to explain here the system used by the Japanese in hospitalizing prisoner patients. Each day at five o'clock, in the afternoon sick call was held. There was no other time that a prisoner could see a doctor. Emergencies were not permitted. When a sick patient reported to sick call at the five o'clock in the afternoon the Allied prisoner doctor would take the man's temperature, make his medical diagnosis and write his findings on a slip of paper provided by the Japanese for that express purpose. If the Allied doctor so ordered, the ill prisoner did not work the following day. However, before a sick prisoner could be relieved from working the following day, the slips of paper with the Allied doctor's diagnosis were reviewed by Masato HATA prior to the sick men being examined by the Japanese doctor. If the Japanese doctor decided that the man was sick enough, in his opinion, then the sick patient did not have to work that day, and was admitted to the hospital. If, however, a man was considered well enough to work by the Japanese doctor, even though this finding was directly contrary to the finding of the Allied doctor, then the sick patient had to work regardless. Under this system many injustices prevailed, to the great detriment of the patients; and in many cases there resulted a beating for the Allied doctor concerned. In malaria cases, for example, when a sick patient came to sick call at five o'clock in the afternoon his temperature might have been taken and recorded on the slip by the Allied doctor as anywhere from 101 to 104 degrees. Masato HATA took the temperature of the malarial patient the following morning, which obviously would be normal since it is a well-known medical fact that malarial patients do not have a long protracted temperature and are usually normal after a period. Masato HATA then would accuse the prisoner doctor of having falsified Japanese medical records and then the officer in question would be subjected to questioning and sometimes a beating from HATA.
e. Masato HATA, each day while I was at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, directed calisthenics which were held early in the morning outside the barracks, both winter and summer, rain or shine. Prisoners of war, including patients in the hospital that were able to get up, were required to go outside, strip to their underwear, and do the calisthenics under Masato HATA's direction. In each case regarding prisoner patients at the hospital, Masato HATA made the decision as to which patients were able to get up from their beds and engage in the exercises. If a prisoner doctor stated that in his opinion a patient was not medically fit to take these exercises as, for example, if the patient had serious boils, high temperature, or otherwise was disabled, then Masato HATA looked the patient over and in most cases decided that the prisoner doctor was wrong and that the patient could do the exercises. The calisthenics were conducted each morning as follows: the officer prisoners and the enlisted prisoners were lined up and directed in their calisthenics by Masato HATA. After a series of calisthenics the officer prisoners were dismissed, but the enlisted prisoners were required, to continue the calisthenics until they were exhausted. After the officers were dismissed, I made it a practice to stand around and watch the calisthenics which were required by Masato HATA of the enlisted men. Each day Masato HATA, who carried a long bamboo replica of a samurai sword, beat the prisoners about the head, body, arms and legs with the wooden sword to urge them on to greater effort in their exercises. Those prisoners who were too weak, or who had weakened to the point where they could net raise their arms or legs or otherwise do the exercises, were especially beaten to make them carry on further. I have witnessed serious beatings administered many times to weak and seriously ill prisoners under the circumstances as above described. I should like to add that practically every day those prisoners who were weakest were singled out to remain after the group taking calisthenics was dismissed. These weaker prisoners were then required by Masato HATA to run around the compound until they fell from sheer exhaustion; most of them fell unconscious. I would also like to point out that the commanding officer of Fukuoka Camp No. 1, Yuhichi SAKAMOTO often witnessed the calisthenics by the prisoners as conducted and directed by Masato HATA. SAKAMOTO during these exercises witnessed and condoned the brutal and inhuman treatment, including the beatings administered to the prisoners, by Masato HATA as above described.
f. In my opinion these calisthenics required of the prisoners, directed by Masata HATA and sometimes witnessed by the commanding officer, Yuhichi SAKAMOTO, were a contributing factor in the death of some of the prisoners. The weaker prisoners who were subjected to these brutal calisthenics and who later died included the following Americans: G. W. Lohman, U. S. Navy, Fernandina, Florida; Hank Gottlieb and Peter W. Hansen, both civilians, prisoners taken by the Japanese at Wake Island. All of these men after a series of these daily calisthenics became so sick that it was impossible for them to stand it any longer; they were held in the hospital a short period of time, in some cases a week, and then died. Some Englishmen who died under the same circumstances were as follows: Trooper T. Hustwick, 7877969, Wallingford, England, who died 2 August 1945; Gunner J. Dickens, 1700325, of Rushden, Northampton, England, who died February 9, 1945; Gunner A. T. Lyalle, 18333000, of Bristol, England, who died January 22, 1945; and also one Australian, S Sgt. P. A. Sims, NX-50743 of New South Wales, Australia, who died July 28, 1945. The above-named men and others who died after May of 1945 when SAKAMOTO left Fukuoka Camp No. 1 died as a result, although delayed, of beatings and deficiencies which occurred during or prior to May of 1945 while Yuhichi SAKAMOTO was in charge as commanding officer of the camp.
g. Trooper Hustwick, 7877969, English, Wallingford, England, was admitted to the hospital under my supervision approximately in May of 1945. At that time his chief complaint was dizziness, extreme weakness and fainting spells. He remained in the hospital until about the middle of July 1945 when he was discharged by Masato HATA against my advice. The man was returned to duty and worked as best he could carrying lumber, each day coming to sick call complaining of dizziness, weakness, and fainting. He was brought into the hospital in a semi-comatose condition on the evening of the first of August 1945, for readmittance, and died the morning of the second. About three days before he died I saw him as he was forced to engage in the calisthenic exercises under the direction of Masato HATA as above described. In his condition, with symptoms of dizziness and fainting, he was certainly in no condition to do calisthenics, and, in my opinion, although I do not recall whether or not he was beaten that day by Masato HATA, his condition was so aggravated by the calisthenics, especially when taken with consideration at the cumulative effect of calisthenics and beatings over a previous period of time, that these calisthenics were a definite factor in causing his death three days later.
5. Corporal William Ivarson, a prisoner of war whom I knew well at Fukuoka Prison Camp No. 1, was a man who was on a working party continually. He reported to sick call occasionally, but not too frequently. His physical condition was fair. By that I mean that he showed evidence of starvation and malnutrition, but was otherwise in fair condition. At about two o'clock in the morning one day in February 1945 I was called in to give medical treatment to Ivarson. When I found him he was unconscious; and although I knew the man I did not at first recognize him from his appearance. As soon as I was told who he was, I recognised him immediately. I then took his pulse which I found to be very rapid; and he looked as though he were going to die. I might say at this point that I always had to plead with the Japanese for their permission to have men hospitalized. In this instance, by the time I had made arrangements with the Japanese for hospitalization of Ivarson he was dead. At this time I heard from fellow prisoners whom I knew well and whom I know to be reliable that Ivarson received a serious beating from a guard named HONDA, nicknamed "The Slob." HONDA, I know from personal experience and observation, particularly well because of beatings which he gave me personally, frequently and regularly came into the hospital and gave severe beatings to patient under my care. I, therefore, have no doubt but what HONDA administered the beating to Ivarson as stated above. When I reported the death of Ivarson to Masato HATA his answer was, "Yoroshi, yoroshi mina shinda tihen yoroshi" (phonetic) (Very good, very good all men die).
6. I recall Tom Holland as a civilian prisoner of war of the Japanese who was taken prisoner by them at Wake Island. I believe that I treated him for malnutrition but I do not at this time recall treating him for a beating. However, I treated so many patients for beatings that I may have forgotten specific treatment I may have given to him.
7. I knew a William Hansen at Fukuoka Prison Camp No. 1, Japan, from approximately April 1944 until time of Japanese capitulation. I do not recall having treated him for any particularly serious illness or beatings.
8. I met Lt. Colonel Alva Fitch of the Royal Artillery, British Army, after our liberation and sometime in September 1945. I know nothing, therefore, of medical treatment afforded to Lt. Colonel Fitch in 1945 prior to the time I met him.
9. The commanding officer of Fukuoka Camp No. 1 was named Yuhichi SAKAMOTO (phonetic) or Yuhichi SAKOMOTO (phonetic). The two-star private, medical orderly, was Masato HATA (phonetic) or Masato HADA (phonetic).
10. I have no further information to add regarding conditions or personnel at Fukuoka Camp No. 1, Kyushu, Japan.
Walter A. Kostecki
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 21st day of
Taken at: Hq First Service Command, Boston 15,
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILIPPINES
|Sugazawa, Iju||Col.||Jan 1943 - Jul 1944|
|Fukumoto, Manjiro||Col.||Jul 1944 - Oct 1945|
|Kitajima, Riichi||Maj.||Jan 1943 - Aug 1943|
|Tokashiki, Isho||Capt.||Jan 1943 - Oct 1945|
|Inouye, Teshimune||1st Lt. (Med)||Jan 1943 - Apr 1944|
|Kochi, Masao||1st Lt. (Acc)||Jan 1943 - Aug 1945|
|Maekawa, Tozo||1st Lt. (Med)||May 1944 - May 1945|
|Watanabe, Tadao||1st Lt. (Acc)||Aug 1943 - Oct 1945|
|Uchimi, Yoshihide||1st Lt. (Acc)||Oct 1943 - Oct 1945|
|Rikitake, Yaichi||Maj.||Aug 1943 - May 1944|
|Kitano, Toshio||Maj.||May 1944 - Aug 1945|
|Omaru, Iseki||2nd Lt.||Aug 1943 - Aug 1944|
|Nishimura, Tomotaka||2nd Lt. (Acc)||Sep 1943 - Jul 1944|
|Yuri, Kei||1st. Lt.||May 1944 - Oct 1945|
|Ogami, Keisaburo||Capt. (Med)||May 1945 - Oct 1945|
|Nishihara, Suemitsu||Wrnt. Off. (Acc)||Apr 1943 - Mar 1944|
|Amakubo, Asaichi||Wrnt. Off.||Jan 1943 - Oct 1945|
|Sendo, Toshio||Sgt. Maj.||Jan 1943 - Oct 1945|
|Ikeda, Hisao||Sgt. Maj.||Dec 1943 - Oct 1945|
|Endo, Takasuke||Sgt. Med.||Jan 1943 - Dec 1943|
|Sasaki, Tetsuo||Sgt. Med.||Dec 1943 - Aug 1945|
|Kanda, Masami||Sgt. Med.||Aug 1945 - Oct 1945|
|Sasaki, Hayao||Sgt.||May 1944 - Nov 1944|
|Kurata, Kazuo||Cpl.||Jan 1943 - Jun 1943|
|Uchida, Toshiharu||Sgt.||Jan 1943 - Feb 1943|
|Teshima, Kaname||Sgt.||Dec 1943 - Oct 1945|
|Shinkai, Toshio||Sgt.||May 1945 - Oct 1945|
|Saito, Kaneo||Sgt. Maj.||Jul 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Tamuro, Takashi||Sgt.||Aug 1943 - Jul 1944|
|Iwakiri, Chuze||Sgt. Maj.||Sep 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Tomita, Kinsaku||Sgt. Maj. (accounts)||Jul 1945 - Oct 1945|
|Fujita, Shigeo||Cpl.||Apr 1945 - Oct 1945|
|Karakasa, Shigenori||Sgt. (accounts)||Aug 1944 - Oct 1945|
|Yanagawa, Takeji||Cpl. (accounts)||Dec 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Yamaguchi, Kiyoshige||Cpl. (medical)||Aug 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Kataoka, Keiichi||Sgt. Maj. (accounts)||Dec 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Uchida, Shozo||Sgt. (accounts)||Dec 1943 - Jan 1944|
|Takenaka, Shoichiro||Cpl. (accounts)||Sep 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Shimokawa, Tamezo||Sgt. Maj. (medical)||Dec 1944 - Mar 1945|
|Sakami, Misao||Sgt. (accounts)||Mar 1944 - Aug 1944|
|Terata, Masaichi||Sgt. (medical)||Jan 1943 - Aug 1944|
|Kunihiro, Yoshitake||Cpl. (medical)||Aug 1944 - Dec 1944|
|Shinohara, Kotaro||Cpl.||Jul 1943 - Jan 1945|
|Togawa, Shogo||Pvt.||Jan 1943 - Jan 1945|
|Ishibashi, Takeji||Pvt.||Jan 1943 - Jan 1945|
|Nakano, Takeichi||Pvt.||Jan 1943 - Jan 1945|
|Nakao, Masayoshi||Pvt.||Jan 1943 - Jan 1945|
|Noguchi, Yoshitaka||Pvt.||Jan 1943 - Jan 1945|
|Shirozu, Nobuharu||2nd Lt. (accounts)||May 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Hara, Daizo||2nd Lt. (accounts)||Aug 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Maeda, Tamizo||Pvt.||Jan 1945 - Aug 1945|
|Kusumoto, Tsugio||Pvt.||Jan 1945 - Aug 1945|
|Kunisaki, Takamasa||Pvt.||Jan 1945 - Aug 1945|
|Imura, Naotaka||Pvt.||Jan 1945 - Aug 1945|
|Yamanaka, Sumiyoshi||Pvt.||Aug 1945 - Aug 1945|
|Hata, Masato||Pvt. (Med)||Jan 1943 - Jun 1943|
|Tsuji, Totsuji||Pvt. (Med)||Jan 1943 - Apr 1943|
|Ando, Tatsuo||Pvt. (Med)||Jan 1943 - Dec 1944|
|Shiota, Masaru||Pvt. (Med)||Dec 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Natajima, Yutaka||Pvt. (Med)||Mar 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Koyama, Kazuma||Pvt. (Med)||Mar 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Watanabe, Yasutaro||Interpreter||Mar 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Mino, Masaru||Interpreter||Apr 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Akiyama, Fukujiro||Interpreter||Dec 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Asano, Yukio||Interpreter||Feb 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Abe, Yokoichi||Employee||Feb 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Iwakuma, Takashi||Employee||Feb 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Mitarai, Masao||Employee||Apr 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Nakano, Tadashi||Employee||Mar 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Sakamoto, Yuhichi||Capt.||Jan 1943 - Jun 1945|
|Yoshii, Toruo||Capt.||Jun 1945 - Present|
|Makita, Satoru||2nd Lieut. (Medical)||Jan 1943 - Nov 1943|
|Inouye, Toshimmo||1st Lieut. (Medical)||Dec 1943 - Apr 1944|
|Maekawa, Toza||1st Lieut. (Medical)||Apr 1944 - May 1945|
|Kanda, Masaichi||1st Lieut. (Medical)||May1944 - Feb 1945|
|Danno, Kazuo||1st Lieut. (Medical)||Feb 1945 - May 1945|
|Ogami, Koisaburo||1st Lieut. (Medical)||May 1945 - Aug 1945|
|Oyama, Mitsuo||2nd Lieut.||Aug 1945 - Present|
|Iwakiri, Chuzo||Sgt. Maj.||Jan 1943 - Dec 1943|
|Kakuyama, Sadao||Warrant Officer||Jan 1943 - Nov 1944|
|Tomita, Kinsaku||Sgt. Maj. (Acc)||Jan 1943 - Jul 1945|
|Mozumi, Masakatsu||Sgt.||Sept 1943 - Jul 1944|
|Murata, Kazuo||Sgt.||May 1944 - Jul 1944|
|Uomi, Takezo||Cpl.||Jul 1944 - Jun 1945|
|Endo, Takasuke||Sgt. Maj. (Medical)||Jan 1943 - Apr 1943|
|Taniguchi, Tsumoru||Sgt. Maj. (Medical)||May 1943 - Nov 1944|
|Yamanishi, Michiaki||Sgt. Maj. (Medical)||Dec 1944 - Mar 1945|
|Kiyohara, Shigemi||Sgt. (Medical)||Mar 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Moritake, Susumu||Sgt. Maj.||Nov 1944 - Feb 1945|
|Ono, Ryuzo||Cpl.||Mar 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Kunimatsu, Daijiro||Cpl.||Jul 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Kataoka, Koichi||Sgt. Maj. (accounts)||Jul 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Katsura, Takeo||Pvt. (Interpreter)||Jan 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Okura, Kazumasa||Pvt.||May 1944 -Jun 1945|
|Wada, Yoichi||Pvt.||May 1944 -Jun 1945|
|Nove, Hiroshi||Pvt.||May 1944 - Jun 1945|
|Oki, Yasushi||Pvt.||May 1944 - Jan 1945|
|Noda, Kasu||Pvt.||Jun 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Takagi, Natsumi||Pvt.||Jun 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Kojo, Hiroji||Pvt.||Jun 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Torata, Masaichi||Pvt. (Medical)||Jan 1943 - Sep 1943|
|Hata, Masato||Pvt. (Medical)||Sep 1943 - Mar 1945|
|Hashimoto, Morio||Pvt. (Medical)||Mar 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Masuda, Taiichi||Pvt. (Medical)||Jun 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Tanouye, Kinzo||Employee||Feb 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Ganaha, Sooi||Employee||Feb 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Fujisaka,||Employee||Mar 1943 - Feb 1944|
|Ijima, Kiyoto||Employee||Mar 1943- Nov 1943|
|Wada, Kosaji||Employee||Mar 1943 - Aug 1944|
|Ude, Hirotake||Employee||Mar 1943 - Jul 1944|
|Uyoda, Cheji||Employee||Mar 1943 - May 1944|
|Miyawaki, Mitsuyuki||Employee||Feb 1943 - Jun 1944|
|Watanabe, Toru||Employee||Feb 1943 - May 1944|
|Koyara, Masakatsu||Employee||Apr 1943 - Sep 1943|
|Isahaya, Masani||Employee||Apr 1943 - Sep 1943|
|Fuchiso, Kiyoshi||Employee||Jun 1943 - Mar 1944|
|Mori, Toshio||Employee||Mar 1943 - May 1944|
|Saruwatari, Kunio||Employee||Mar 1943 - May 1944|
|Araki, Yoshiki||Employee||Jul 1943 - Jun 1945|
|Honda, Hajime||Employee||Mar 1943 - Jun 1945|
|Hirano, Jirokichi||Employee||Apr 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Matsunaga, Shigenori||Employee||Feb 1943 - Sep 1945|
|Komori, Yasuo||Employee||Feb 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Kuga, Suyotaugu||Employee||Mar 1944 - Sep 1945|
|Maesuahith, Yoshio||Employee||Jun 1945 - Sep 1945|
|Harano, Tsuruo||Employee||Jun 1945 - Sep 1945|
For a list of B- and C-class war criminals who were at Kyushu camps, see Summary of Japanese War Crime Tribunal sentencing of Japanese personnel in Fukuoka Camp Group. (Japanese chart)
The chart below, compiled from a variety of sources, compares POW death rates among all nationalities in both German and Japanese POW camps. It is interesting to note the differences in figures and percentages. I found the statement by Linda Holmes in her book, Unjust Enrichment, quite surprising:
To compare the fates of American prisoners held in the two major theaters of war from 1941 to 1945, nearly 40 percent of U.S. military prisoners died in Japanese captivity, while just over 1 percent of American POWs died in Nazi hands. Nine out of ten prisoners who died in World War II perished while in Japanese custody.
Over 22,000 members of the Australian armed services and more than 500 Australian civilians spent over three and a half years in Japanese prisoner-of-war or internment camps in locations throughout Japanese-controlled Asia and the East Indies.
In all, some 13,872 Australian prisoners of war were recovered from Japanese captivity at the end of the war. Of those taken prisoner in 1941 and 1942, approximately 7,777 died in captivity - 35 per cent. As the Australian official history notes, this represented nearly three times the number killed in battle in, for example, the 9th Australian Division during its four campaigns. The prisoner-of-war deaths represented half of all those Australians who died in the war against Japan. By comparison, 7,116 Australians became prisoners of the Germans or Italians, of whom 582 - eight per cent - died in captivity.
"It was 17.5% more deadly to be a prisoner of the Japanese than to fight against them in battle."
Statistics on POWs of the Japanese
American POWs Held in WWII
There were 130,201 US military personnel captured and interned in WWII. As of January 1, 2000, 38,114 were still alive (29.2%). Of the total count of US POWs in WWII, 36,260 were captured and interned by the Japanese. On January 1, 2000, 5,745 were still alive (15.8%). Here is the grim news -- the comparison of those military held by Germany and Japan.
There were 18,745 US civilians captured and interned in WWII. As of January 1, 2000, 3,018 were still alive (16.1%). Of the total civilian POWs in WWII, 13,996 were captured and interned by the Japanese. On January 1, 1999, only 1,497 were still alive (10.7%). Again, here are the grim statistics -- the comparison of US civilians interned by Germany versus those held by Japan.
Source: AXPOW Association, March 15, 2000
"The Veterans Administration reports that 46,417 ex-prisoners-of-war were alive as of January 1, 2001. The numbers of living Ex-POWs is dwindling rapidly. The number living as of January 1, 1998, was 55,999. Clearly our numbers are decreasing at well over 3000 per year and this rate is accelerating." -- Wally Nelson, EX-POW Bulletin, June 2001
Behind Bamboo: American POWs in the Pacific
Estimated number captured, died and returned to U.S. control.
Captured by Country
Killed or Died in Captivity by
POWs Liberated by Country
Source: Surrender and Survival: The Experience of American POWs in the Pacific by E. Bartlett Kerr, 1985
From Japanese Statistics
Ronkoku Fuzoku-sho B, Feb. 19, 1948
Comparative statistic for Japanese prisoners of war held in the Soviet Union: Out of 575,000 internees, 55,000 died in captivity, a death rate of 9.6%.
For a statistical comparison, see POW STRENGTH FIGURES AS REPORTED BY MID, which show the numbers of POWs our military intelligence estimated were in camps in late 1944.
The Naval History and Heritage Command has some very good basic information on POW and internee numbers: U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan by Gary K. Reynolds, Information Research Specialist (2002)
Straight from the National Archives and Japan Archives:
See this PDF showing statistics on American POWs of the Japanese (same as Behind Bamboo list above), and also tables showing Strength and Composition of US Army Troops in the Philippines, incl. the Philippine Division.
Utilization of POWs for Work - USSBS Report (JPG)
Korean, Chinese, and POW workers in factories and mines 1944-06-30 - USSBS Report (JPG)
Coal Mining Employment, Koreans, POWs, Chinese - USSBS Report (JPG)
In an effort to find finality on POWs statistics, I refer the reader to Chapter 9 in Van Waterford's excellent work of research, Prisoners of the Japanese in World War II -- "Out of about 1 million captives, well over one-third died -- a needlessly and tragically high figure."
For further research into this matter of statistics, I recommend R.J. Rummel's most imformative work, Statistics Of Japanese Democide -- Estimates, Calculations, And Sources. Of special note is the Table dealing with POW figures. Regarding POW numbers, Rummel writes:
Japanese Camps for War Prisoners
(From Our War Correspondent, James O'Connor)
Of more than 200,000 persons captured by the Japanese, half are British, a third American and the remainder Dutch. It is estimated that a quarter died in Internment and that 10,000 have been either repatriated or liberated.
During last Spring some 75,000 prisoners of war and 60,000 civilian internees were held in Japan, up to 40,000 being located in 100 camps, Including 14,000 British, 10,000 Americans, nearly 8,000 Australians, 5,000 Dutch and 1,000 Canadians.
Held in a camp near Tokyo are about 80 women, mainly Catholic Sisters from America.
The representative of the American Red Cross stated that while no reliable information was to hand in recent months it could be presumed that conditions had deteriorated owing to the Allied blockade, but those in Japan proper appeared to be better off, as far as food is concerned, than those in the outer periphery.
Military and civilian internees were also held in Korea, Manchuria, and Formosa, while there were camps at Shanghai, Peking, Hong-kong, Thailand, Indo-China, Malaya and the N.E.I.
About 1,000 English and Australians were Interned at Kaigo in Japan. The few thousands still remaining in Malaya are mostly British and Dutch.
The Canberra Times, Monday 20 August 1945